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Glindex

The word Glindex comes from the words Glossary (place in a book that defines words used in that book) and Index (place in a book that indicates where you can find specific words or ideas in that book). We programmed a computer to sound just like Dr. Art pronouncing these words. Click on a word to hear it and its definition.

A-B   C   D-E   F-L   M-O   P-R   S-Z
 

Amino acids
Medium-sized molecules that are the building blocks of proteins. Twenty different amino acids link with each other in long chains to make proteins. (p.167-171).

Antibody
A kind of protein that plays an important role in the body?s immune system (p.168).

Asteroid
Object made of rock, metal, and/or ice that orbits the Sun, but is much smaller than a planet (p.215).

Atmosphere
Earth?s gas stuff exists as a thin layer of air (p. 120). Earth?s liquid stuff is called the hydrosphere (p. 114-115). Earth?s solid stuff is called the geosphere (p. 109).

Atom
The smallest piece of an element (p.31-40).

Atomic nucleus
The tiny center of the atom with almost all its mass in the form of protons and neutrons (p. 39-40). Plural is atomic nuclei. Also go to page 44, read the last sentence of the fifth paragraph, and do what it says.

Bacteria
One-celled organisms that were the only Earthlings for billions of years. One bacterium, many bacteria (p.16-17, 206).

Biodiversity
The number and kinds of Earth?s organisms. We don?t know how many species there are, or how fast they are disappearing (p.148-149).

Biomass
The mass of living organisms. Most of Earth?s biomass is located in plant life and decaying soil (p.122-123, 148).

Cell
The building block of life. Organisms either consist of one cell or are multicellular, with many cells working together (p.163-165).

Celsius
Temperature scale set at zero for freezing point of water and 100 for boiling point of water. A change in one degree C is equal to a change of 1.8 degrees Fahrenheit.

Chemical change
What happens when atoms change their bonding to form different molecules. Find out why The DJ for Dr. Art?s 50th Anniversary Ball had to use professional wrestlers to model chemical change (p.56-57).

Chlorofluorocarbons
Human-made molecules that destroy ozone in Earth?s upper atmosphere (p.228-229).

Climate
Pattern of weather over relatively long periods of time and broad areas. Are human actions changing global climate (p.232-233)?

Compound
What you have when two or more elements combine with each other. As a system, a compound generally has qualitatively different properties than the elements that are its parts (p.41).

Conduction
Way that heat moves as the extra ?jiggling? travels away from the hot area of the object (p.131).

Consumer
Organism in an ecosystem that either eats the producers or eats other consumers (p.152).

Convection
Way that heat moves that involves the molecules moving and bringing the heat energy with them (p.143-144).

Cycles
A repeating pattern, such as the way matter moves on Earth. See the rock cycle (p. 109-113), water cycle (p. 114-119), and carbon cycle (p. 120-124). You may find yourself muttering, ?Matter cycles, matter cycles.?

Decomposer
Organism that breaks down dead organisms and waste, returning nutrients to its ecosystem (p.151-153).

DNA
Humongous molecule that codes information that is inherited (p.172-179).

Ecosystem
The organisms that live in a particular place, and how they interact with each other and with their local environment. All ecosystems have a similar pattern of organization with producers, consumers, and decomposers (p.151-157, 237-238).

Electromagnetic spectrum
Full range from radio waves to visible light to X-rays and cosmic rays (p.132-134).

Electromagnetism
One of the main forces in nature. Electromagnetism is the glue of matter. The features of electricity and magnetism that we experience are the tip of the electromagnetic iceberg (p.67-83).

Electron
Negatively charged subatomic particle located at the outer edges of the atom (p.36-40).

Element
92 elements naturally occur on Earth. Every thing is either an element or made of elements combined with each other (p.28-34).

Energy
It changes forms, remains constant in amount, can be measured very precisely, and avoids simple definitions (p.46-59).

Enzyme
Protein that helps make chemical reactions happen in cells. Organisms generally have thousands of different enzymes, each one involved in one or just a few reactions (p.168).

Erosion
Processes that move broken rock away from its original location. Technically, the processes that break the rock are called weathering (p.112).

Evolution
Scientific theory describing and explaining how life on Earth has changed over time (p.182-222).

Fossil
Preserved evidence of a dead organism (p.185-187).

Galaxy
System containing up to billions of stars connected by gravity. The solar system is in the Milky Way galaxy (p.86-87).

Genetic Code
Same system used by all Earth life in which the order of bases in a section of nucleic acid (such as DNA) tells the cell the exact order of amino acids in making a section of a protein (p.176-178).

Geosphere
Earth?s solid stuff, typically studied by geologists (p.109-113).

Gravity
The force of attraction between objects that causes an apple to fall to the ground and the Moon to keep orbiting Earth (p.65-67, 80).

Greenhouse Effect
Absorption by gases in the atmosphere of heat radiating from Earth?s surface resulting in a warmer global climate (p.137-139, 233).

Half-life
Each radioactive isotope decays at a specific rate defined as the time it takes for half of the atoms to decay. This decay rate remains the same, and is independent of the amount of the radioactive isotope (p.210-211).

Hemoglobin
Protein in the blood that carries oxygen to cells (p.168-178).

Iridium
Rare element in Earth?s surface that provided the first evidence that an asteroid collision caused dinosaurs to become extinct (p.215-216).

Isotopes
Forms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons (p.208-209).

Light year
Distance that light travels in one year (p. 90, 92). Much longer than a crawling second or a subway minute (p. 88, 102-103).

Magnetism
One of the ways that we experience the electromagnetic force at our level of reality (p.65-75).

Molecule
Particle that is formed when two or more atoms combine with each other. The smallest piece of a compound is a molecule (p.42).

Mutation
Change in the hereditary information that can cause a change in an organism (p.197-199).

Natural Selection
Process by which populations of an organism change over time so the organism survives and reproduces more successfully (p.194-203).

Neutron
Uncharged subatomic particle located with the protons in the center of the atom (p.36-40, 208-209).

Nuclear fusion
Smaller atomic nuclei combining to form larger atomic nuclei, with small amounts of mass changing into huge amounts of energy (p.92-93).

Nucleic acid
Class of huge molecules that store information in living systems (p.173).

Nucleus
The central part of a structure, such as the atomic nucleus. Plural is nuclei (p.39-40, 93).

Ozone
A form of oxygen gas consisting of three atoms connected with each other. In the lower atmosphere, ozone is a pollutant. The ozone layer in the upper atmosphere protects organisms from the Sun?s UV rays (p.227-229).

Photosynthesis
Chemical reaction in which organisms use solar energy to make sugar by combining carbon dioxide and water (p.8-10, 150-151).

Physical change
A change to a material where the molecules remain the same. Ice melting is a physical change. Ice and liquid water are both H2O (p.56).

Plate tectonics
Theory explaining major features of Earth?s surface and the causes of earthquakes and volcanoes (p.110-113).

Producers
Organisms that serve as the base of an ecosystem by storing solar or electrochemical energy as chemical energy that other organisms can use (p.151-153).

Property
Feature of a material, such as how it looks (e.g., color), feels (e.g., solid or liquid), or behaves (e.g., bursts into flame when it touches water) (p.20).

Protein
Class of huge molecules that perform most tasks in living organisms (p.167-172).

Proton
Positively charged subatomic particle located with the neutrons in the center of the atom. The number of protons makes each element different from one another (p.36-40).

Radiation
Way that energy moves as a wave (p. 132-134). Also refers to energy released by radioactive elements (p. 209).

Radioactive
Form of an element that is unstable and gives off radiation when it breaks down (radioactive decay). Radioactive dating uses rates of radioactive decay to determine the age of objects (p.208-211).

Reservoir
Where a kind of matter is located as part of its cycle. The ocean is the largest water reservoir and rocks are the largest carbon reservoir (p.114-115, 122).

Respiration
Process whereby organisms burn sugar for energy and release carbon dioxide (p.150-151).

Strong nuclear force
Force holding the protons and neutrons together within the atomic nucleus (p.78-80).

Subatomic particles
Protons, neutrons, and electrons are particles that make up the atom (p.33-38).

Supernova
Large stars can explode and release more energy in three weeks than the Sun gives off in ten billion years (p.97).

System
A system exists whenever parts combine or connect with each other to form a whole. The whole is QUALITATIVELY more than the sum of its parts. You, your circulatory system, water, and table salt are all examples of systems (p.18-24).

Theory
A scientific explanation of the natural world that is based on many different pieces and kinds of evidence. The germ theory of disease is an example (p.18, 25).

Ultraviolet radiation (UV)
Form of electromagnetic radiation with a slightly shorter wavelength than visible light (p.134-135, 227-229).

Vitalism
Mistaken theory that some special ingredient causes things to be alive. Instead, we now have a systems view of life (p.162-163).

Wave
Heat and other forms of energy can travel as waves. One way that waves differ from each other is in their wavelength (p.132-134).

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